Deploy Scalable and Reliable WordPress Site on LEMP(2)

Deploy Scalable and Reliable WordPress Site on LEMP(1) introduced the LEMP design, lab setup and MySQL configuration. This post will further introduce how to deploy Gluster distributed file system and Nginx web server. PHP will be initially enabled on the Nginx web server to prove WordPress site is working. The next post will introduce hosting PHP on a separate server.

Step 2 – Gluster Distributed File System

Gluster is a scale-out network attached file system. It aggregates storage servers, known as ‘storage bricks’ into one large parallel network file system. Virtual volumes are created across the member bricks. Servers with GlusterFS client service installed can have the remote virtual volume mounted.

There are 3 types of virtual volumes. Please refer to ‘GlusterFS Current Features & Roadmap‘ for details.

  • Distributed Volume: similar to RAID 0 without replica; files are evenly spread across bricks.
  • Replicated Volume: similar to RAID 1, which copies files to multiple bricks.
  • Distributed Replicated Volume: Distributes files across replicated bricks.

In this lab, we will deploy 1 node in the GlusterFS cluster, which means ‘Distributed Volume’ mode is used. Additional bricks can be added later.

Configuration is as below. Refer Gluster installation guide for details:

#update and install gluster on FS01. '-y' means automatically answering yes to all prompts.
sudo apt-get update

#ubuntu Personal Package Archive(PPA) requires 'software-properties-common' to be installed first.
sudo apt-get install -y software-properties-common

#add the community GlusterFS PPA
sudo add-apt-repository -y ppa:gluster/glusterfs-3.8

#update again
sudo apt-get update

#install GlusterFS server
sudo apt-get install -y glusterfs-server

#create a volume called 'file_store'. If replica is required, add 'replica n' after the volume name. 
#'' is the brick's private IP. If multiple bricks exit, all member IPs are required in the command.
gluster volume create file_store transport tcp force

#start the 'file_store' volume.The volume is ready-to-use now.
gluster volume start file_store

Step 3 – Nginx Web Server

In this step, we will create a Nginx web server with PHP integrated initially; mount the virtual volume created in Step 2  to the web server; download WordPress files to the mounted folder; and then update WordPress config file to point to the mounted folder and connect to the database created in Step 1.

The following configuration shows which services are to be installed and how to mount external volume as partition.

#update and install nginx, glusterfs client, php-fpm and php-mysql services on WEB01
sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get -y install nginx glusterfs-client php-fpm php-mysql

#Nginx used to require set php-fpm pathinfo to false 'cgi.fix_pathinfo=0' in 'php.ini'.Default is true '1'. It was a security issue related with Nginx and older version (5.0) of php-fpm.
#the change is not required as we are using PHP7.0

#make a folder called 'gluster' under root
sudo mkdir /gluster
#mount the 'file_store' volume on FS01 to '/gluster'on WEB01. '' is FS01's private IP. 'glusterfs' is the filesystem type.
sudo mount -t glusterfs /gluster

# add the partition to fstab so it mounts automatically at boot time.
sudo echo " /gluster glusterfs defaults,_netdev 0 0" >> /etc/fstab

# create a folder 'www' under '/gluster'. '/gluster/www' will be the web root.
sudo mkdir /gluster/www

We now need to modify the default Nginx server block to point to our new web root, ‘/gluster/www’.

sudo nano /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

Modify ‘/etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default’ file content as below. Changes are highlight in BLUE.

server {
	listen 80 default_server;
	listen [::]:80 default_server ipv6only=on;

	root /gluster/www;
	index index.php index.html index.htm;

	# Make site accessible from http://localhost/

	location / {
		# First attempt to serve request as file, then
		# as directory, then fall back to displaying a 404.
		#try_files $uri $uri/ =404; 
                #the following config sends everything through to index.php and keeps the appended query intact.
                try_files $uri $uri/ /index.php?q=$uri&$args;
	# pass the PHP scripts to FastCGI server listening on the php-fpm socket
        location ~ \.php$ {
                try_files $uri =404;
                fastcgi_pass unix:/run/php/php7.0-fpm.sock;
                fastcgi_index index.php;
                fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
                include fastcgi_params;              

Download and configure WordPress.

#download WordPress files and unzip
wget -O /root/wp.tar.gz
tar -zxf /root/wp.tar.gz -C /root/

#copy the WordPress files to our new web root on WEB01. After the copy, the files are also shown on FS01, as it is the storage destination mounted to WEB01.
cp -Rf /root/wordpress/* /gluster/www/.

#copy sample WordPress config file to 'wp-config.php', where we can define the database connection.
cp /gluster/www/wp-config-sample.php /gluster/www/wp-config.php

We now update ‘/gluster/www/wp-config.php’ with the ‘wordpress1’ database and ‘wpuser1’ information, which was created in Step 1.

// ** MySQL settings - You can get this info from your web host ** //
/** The name of the database for WordPress */
define('DB_NAME', 'wordpress1');

/** MySQL database username */
define('DB_USER', 'wpuser1');

/** MySQL database password */
define('DB_PASSWORD', 'password');

/** MySQL hostname */
define('DB_HOST', '');

/** Database Charset to use in creating database tables. */
define('DB_CHARSET', 'utf8');

/** The Database Collate type. Don't change this if in doubt. */
define('DB_COLLATE', '');

We now make the web root ‘gluster/www’ owned by the user ‘www-data’ and the group ‘www-data’, which Nginx process will use. Then finally restart the Nginx and php-fpm services to make our previous config changes working.

chown -Rf www-data:www-data /gluster/www
service nginx restart
service php7.0-fpm restart

Step 4 – WordPress Site

We now can access the WordPress site by WEB01’s public IP or DNS name if it’s been setup. The following should show and lead to initial setup wizard.

Self-hosted WordPress provides much more flexibility and features than hosted by

To be Continued


2 thoughts on “Deploy Scalable and Reliable WordPress Site on LEMP(2)

  1. Pingback: Deploy Scalable and Reliable WordPress Site on LEMP(1) | AUTRUNK

  2. Pingback: Deploy Scalable and Reliable WordPress Site on LEMP(3) | AUTRUNK

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